Artificial Intelligence



Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are algorithmic architectures that use two neural networks, pitting one against the other in order to generate new, synthetic instances of data that can pass for real data. GANs were introduced in a paper by Ian Goodfellow and other researchers at the University of Montreal, including Yoshua Bengio, in 2014. They are used widely in image generation, video generation and voice generation.

Generative Adversarial Networks is the most interesting idea in machine learning in last ten years — Yann Lecun (Facebook AI Director)
Generative Adversarial Network

GANs consist of two parts: generators and discriminators. The generator model produces synthetic examples (e.g., images) from random noise sampled using a distribution, which along with real examples from a training data set are fed to the discriminator, which attempts to distinguish between the two. Both the generator and discriminator improve in their respective abilities until the discriminator is unable to tell the real examples from the synthesised examples with better than the 50% accuracy expected of chance. The goal of the generator is to generate passable hand-written digits: to lie without being caught. The goal of the discriminator is to identify images coming from the generator as fake. 

  Here are the steps a GAN takes:

  • The generator takes in random numbers and returns an image.
  • This generated image is fed into the discriminator alongside a stream of images taken from the actual, ground-truth dataset.
  • The discriminator takes in both real and fake images and returns probabilities, a number between 0 and 1, with 1 representing a prediction of authenticity and 0 representing fake.
Cyber Security



HArdware Hacking, Hacking, Cyber Security

In general definition it can be described and socially accepted as when an electronic device is made to perform a deviated task that it did not intend to perform initially.

In the late 2018,Bloomberg ran a series of stories reporting that China installed spy chips on motherboards manufactured by U.S.-headquartered Super-micro, a company whose motherboards are used by tech companies like Apple and Amazon in their servers.

Man is to technology what the bee is to the flower. It’s man’s intervention that allows technology to expand and evolve itself and in return, technology offers man convenience, wealth and the lessening burden of physical labor via its automated systems. ― James Scott, Co-Founder, Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology

Now as abundant availability of rapid hardware prototyping has come into existence it has been like a boon to the hardware hacking cartels. It can be used for many purposes and of those some of are privacy breach, system spying, system crashing, blackmailing someone for money in exchange of their privacy and for God’s sake many more.

As in one of those paragraphs I have mentioned about a Bloomberg’s reports of China putting in spy chips, so just imaging if it’s true and really did happen, just image of you are right now using one of those computers fitted with those, imaging if they get to know that you are reading this from the spy chip they might have put in your laptop or computer. Where are enormously big companies who succumb to these security breaches and lose billions to the market. Well I would like to put some light over some events that took place some years ago, some pretty big companies suffered enormous lose due to unrecognized money transfers to anonymous bank account across the globe and till the time they found out it was way too late they succumbed to sudden bankruptcy then fell down in the market and some anonymous personality bought their shares from their own money and made the company run for billions, well it’s not a true story it’s what I would to if I had expertise in it. This is one of the ways organizations suffer to hardware hackings.

Back in days when we used to buy those PC game disks and some of them would finish the setup but wouldn’t run, out of those some would eventually end up damaging our own system and we were forced to restore the system erasing all the data and reinstalling the windows. So, in this context this does also can contribute to hardware hacking under the condition that the problem in the disc is purposely put to harm the system of the beholder.

To staying safe from breaches like these, governments across the globe have joined hands and procurement of the desired products aTer certain evaluations and only aTer they meet certain standards was made mandatory.

Cyber Security



Cyber Bullying, Criminal, Law

Let just imagine a scenario where you just like in just a normal day or was one you open you social media account to have some new of your sphere but then suddenly there is one anonymous personality whose words are not so pleasing to you rather would refer offensive to you in one way or the other. In this case if the absurd message, comment or post is without the intention of hurting you, you’ll end up blocking that account and forget about what happened. But if that occurs on a frequent basis with maybe the same personality behind it with some not so good intentions is called Cyber Bullying.

Cyber-bullying is poised to turn into the biggest online concern, already affecting up to 35% of all children. - Dr Martyn Wild

There can be different types of Bullying which I don’t want to speak out as while saying so I might offend someone somewhere but I’ll chose to say so because to pour light on something you need to have the source of the light which are in this context the bullies. So those are body shamming, face shamming, offensive words, threats etc. While it is a scary part of being on the internet it is protected by some laws. Following are some cyber laws though that cover some of the acts classified as cyber bullying in India:-

Sec.66A – Sending offensive messages through communication service, etc.

Sec.66C – Identity TheL.

Sec.66D – Cheating by personation by using the computer resource.

Sec.66E – Violation of privacy.

Sec.67B – Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in any sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form.

Sec.72 – Breach of confidentiality and privacy.

Sec.503 Indian Penal Code (IPC) – Sending threatening messages through email.

Sec.509 IPC – Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman.


Sec.499 IPC – Sending defamatory messages through email.

Sec .500 IPC – Email Abuse.


Well there are some tips to avoid one :-

1. OBSERVE:- Watch out and stay alert.

2. RECORD:- If there’s one store proof by screenshot or anything likewise.

3. REPORT:- Report to your country’s Cyber crime branch.

Cyber Security



Hacking, Facebook, Instagram, Whatsapp Hacking

So, Hello reader! If you’re reading this its a fairly high chance that you might be on some social media platform. Stating that you might even have an account in one of those. Suppose you receive a mail from some anonymous sender and you out of curiosity open it but there’s nothing to feed your curiosity in there, its empty or has either some emoji or .gif or might even have just a hello message. What you notice after some time that there’s some malicious activity going around with your email address like unknown sent mail’s, anonymous subscription to site you’re not aware of or maybe you don’t access to your email address anymore.

Social engineering has become about 75% of an average hacker's toolkit, and for the most successful hackers, it reaches 90% or more. - John McAfee

What just happened comes under a wide class of hacking called Social Media Hacking. Well it’s always in my nature to elaborate things with some situational examples.

It can happen in any social media platforms and some of those are Facebook ,Instagram ,Telegram, LinkedIn etc. You can avoid these malicious activities to your account by some basic steps or I’ll phrase it at-least you’ll be less prone to these attacks


Ways to prevent Social Media Hacking:-

1. Password – Make sure you have a fairly hard to
guess password. Make it less likely to be found from hit and
trial method like your name, date of
birth or names of family/ friends.

2. Security Question:- There’s an option to set a security question
to your account incase you forget your
password. And you should always opt for this option. It makes the account even
more secure.

3. Recovery Mail or Phone number:- Don’t
forget to add your mail and phone no. to recover your password in case you forget. You
can also set a recovery mail to your email account. Make sure you you set a recovery mail by
your family members or anybody very close to

4. Watch out for malicious activity:- Always check your activity on a regular
basis and if you find some malicious activity going with the social media
accounts, try resetting you’re password just put you in a more safe place. You also have an option of filing a complaint to the particular
social media and they take immediate action to check your account.

5. Report:- You can always report some malicious activity to your service provider
and they’ll look into the matter. In
social media you can always go to
the support section to put your concerns about your account’s activity.

6.  Open Mail/ Msg Carefully:- Before opening any mail/ msg make sure you have received it from authenticate account. If you see any
suspicious number or mail ignore it.

You can always contribute to the security of your own account and your account awareness can actually put down many of these attempts.

Cyber Security



In simple definition of credit card is that it is a small plastic card with a unique number to it which is related to an account and people are able to buy any kind of stuffs using that and receive a bill every month for the purchased.

Credit, as the name suggests it is a kind of loan and it comes under micro loaning. It has interest charges, fines, default laws and etc. Infact it’s just like any ordinary loan but in micro level of the economy. The amount of money you can spend using your credit card is determined by your bank and it analyses some factor to do so. There are five components your credit amount depends upon and those are Character, Capacity, Capital, Collateral and conditions. On the basis of this in order to get a fair amount of credit amount your character should be clean legally, you should have the capacity to pay back, you should have some collateral in case you are unable to pay back and of-course there are some contains to the credit amount. If you clear all these you’ll be provided with a credit amount based on your capital and monthly income.

Our advice is to treat Credit Cards like what they are: little plastic grenades that must be handled very carefully.
Hacking, Statistics, Data Loss, Fraud

Now as we learned about credit cards and how it works there something we all do and it’s quite common and it is online transactions. If anything comes with an online mobility it always come with the chances of cyber theft and that’s why there exists a term called Cyber security and as the name literally means it provides security from cyber theft.

Security available to avoid a cyber theft are:-

1. Card details – Card number, expiry date, CVV and a one ,me password that is sent to the registered mobile number when you make a transaction and it is necessary to complete the transaction. It is you who is authorizing the gateway to continue with the payment.

2. Payment gateway security – You must’ve seen some lines on your payment gateway while you were making an online payment like “NORTON SECURED, Visa secure, Wibmo” or of the same type. They are security providers for payment gateways.

 3. You yourself – You are the biggest contributor to your own security. You should never shared your card details and password with anyone. Remember 8 out of 10 ,me it’s done from someone who know your card identity. And always keep track of your fund movements and of you notice any malicious activity report to your bank. And avoid making transaction on non popular and not verified sites. You can save yourself better than anyone else in this world.